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Year : 2017 | Volume : 5 | Issue : 2 | Page : 71 - 73  


Short Communications
Prevalence of ABO & Rh blood groups in patients visiting Malla Reddy Health City, Suraram, Hyderabad

Tara B. Bhutada1, Mohd. Noorjahan Begum2

1Professor, 2Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Malla Reddy Medical College for Women, Suraram, Jeedimetla, Hyderabad

Corresponding Author

Dr. Mohd. Noorjahan Begum

Email: dr.noorie@gmail.com

ABSTRACT:

Background: Blood groups of different people have different antigenic and immune properties, so that, antibodies in the plasma of one blood react with antigens on the surface of the red cells of another blood type. If proper precautions are taken then transfusion reactions can be prevented. ABO and Rh are important. They are likely to cause blood transfusion reactions.

Objectives: Study was carried out to determine the frequency and distribution of ABO and Rh Blood groups in patients visiting Malla Reddy Health City, Suraram, Telangana.

Methods: Study was carried out from Dec., 2015 to May 2016. Comprised of 5000 subjects visiting Pathology Lab. Blood groups were determined by direct agglutination method by using antisera.

Results: Percentage of distribution of ABO blood groups was in order of O (37.90%), B (31.88%), A (21.80%) & AB (8.42%). Percentage distribution of Rh Positive (95.34%) & Rh negative (4.66%).

Conclusion: Commonest blood group in this study was O Rh positive & least

Key Words: Blood groups ABO, Rhesus (Rh) Rh+ve, Rh-ve. Percentage %

INTRODUCTION:

Blood group of different people have different antigenic and immune properties, so that, antibodies in the plasma of one blood react with antigens on the surface of the red cells of another blood type. If proper precautions are taken then transfusion reactions can be prevented. 1 Nearly 700 erythrocyte antigens are described and organized into 30 Blood group systems by the international society of blood transfusion ISBT of which ABO and Rh are important. 2 They are likely to cause blood transfusion reactions. The discovery of ABO blood group by Karl Landsteiner was an important achievement in the history of blood transfusion that was followed by discovery of Rh (D) antigen. 3, 4 Blood groups are genetically determined and are inherited in a Mandelian fashion and are useful in paternity testing. 5 ABO and Rh (D) is useful in selecting matched blood during blood transfusion, organ transplantation. They are known to have association with certain diseases like duodenal ulcers, Diabetes Mellitus, Urinary Tract Infections, Rh and ABO incompatibility of newborn. 6

ABO blood group system classifies Blood groups into four different types A, B, O and AB. Rh system into Rh positive and Rh negative. Frequency of blood groups varies in people belonging to different communities from one population to another. 7 The success of blood transfusion depends on ensuring the compatibility of the blood types between donor and recipient. Thus the knowledge about the distribution of blood groups at regional level will be helpful in effective management of blood banks and safe blood transfusion services. 8 They are not only important in relation to blood transfusion and organ transplantation, but also can be utilized in genetic research, anthropology and tracing ancestral relations of humans. 9, 10, 11 Present study was planned with the aim of determining distribution of A, B, O & AB & Rh Blood groups.

MATERIAL & METHODS:

A cross sectional Study (hospital record based) was carried out in Malla Reddy Health City from Dec, 2015 to May, 2016. 5000 subjects (both males and females) visiting the Pathology Laboratory for routine investigations during study period were included. Permission of Ethical Committee of the Institute and consent of Head of the department of Pathology was taken.

ABO & Rh blood grouping was done by using commercially available antisera monoclonal (ERYSCREEN TM TULIP DIAGNOSTICS LIMITED KIT INDIA). Blood was collected by aseptic precautions. Blood group was determined by direct agglutination method by using antisera. Particulars of each subject were taken in data collection sheet.

Measurement Tools:

Slide method: A drop of commercially available antisera A, B, and D were mixed with a drop of blood sample placed on the slide and examined for agglutination after 2 minutes. Rh blood group was further confirmed under microscope. Blood groups were determined on the basis of presence or absence of agglutination.

The blood group data was recorded in the proforma, tabulated and analyzed. Percentage of prevalence of various blood groups A, B, AB, O and Rh +ve or Rh –ve was done and results were tabulated.

Statistical analysis: The data was entered in Microsoft Excel Worksheet. Proportions were used to analyze the results.

RESULTS:

Table 1: Distribution of various Blood Groups (ABO & Rh)

Blood group type

Rh +ve

Rh-ve

Total

A

1044 (20.88%)

46(0.92% )

1090(21.80 )

B

1525 (30.55%)

69 (1.38% )

1594 ( 31.88% )

AB

390� (7.80% )

31 (0.2% )

421(8.42%)

O

1808 (36.16%)

87 (1.74%)

1895 (37.90%)

Total

4767 (95.34%)

233(4.66%)

5000 (100%)

 

Majority 1895(37.90%) had O+ve blood group, AB-ve 31(8.42%) were least. Percentage distribution of blood groups ABO & Rh is as per table O positive 36.16% and O negative 4.66%, B positive 30.50% and B negative 1.38%, A positive 20.88% and A negative 0.92%. AB positive 7.80% and AB negative 0.62%. Our results state that blood group O, Rh positive is predominant and AB Rh negative is least dominant.

Table 2: Distribution of Rh blood groups

 

Total

Percentage

     

Rh +ve

4767

95.34

Rh -ve

233

4.66

Total

5000

100

The Rh positives were 95.34% and Rh negative were 4.66% as per table 2.

DISCUSSION:

The distribution of A, B, O and Rh Blood group varies regionally, ethnically and from one population to other.

In the present study blood group O Rh +ve was commonest; AB Rh +ve was the least common. Findings of our study coincide with studies of Ahmed Khurshid Pasa et al 11 and M. K. Sukumaran et al 12, Periyavan A et al 13 Girish et al 14, Swamy et al 15.showed predominance of blood group O followed by B & A group and least was blood group AB. Rh+ve were 94.20% and Rh- ve were 5.79%.this coincides with our present study.

Study of Das PK, Nair SC, et al. 16 The most common blood group was found to be group B Rh +ve. Next in order was O Rh +ve , A Rh+ve and The least common blood group was AB Rh +ve.

Results of Shaikh YA et al showed predominance of blood group O. Sidhu S, et al 17 studies done in Punjab described blood group B as the most common blood group. Patel P.A from Ahmadabad also found B as the most common blood group followed O group.

The Geographical distribution in India depicts B being the commonest blood group in northern and western India whereas in Eastern and Southern India O is the most frequently occurring blood group. Such a study creates awareness about our own blood group and prepares data base for medical emergencies requiring blood transfusion.

CONCLUSION:

The present study concludes that O +ve group is the most common followed by B, A, and AB blood group respectively. Regarding Rhesus blood group system Rh+ve. Were more than Rh –ve in subjects visiting Malla Reddy Health city Suraram Jeedimetla, Hyderabad. This database can be used for medical emergencies requiring blood transfusion .Also Blood group written on Aadhar card, Driving License, Office ID card is of great help in emergencies of acute hemorrhage.

REFERENCES:

  1. Guyton and Hall. In: Hall JE, editor. Blood types; Transfusion; Tissue and organ transplantation. Text Book of Medical Physiology, 12th New Delhi; Elsevier;2012.P-445
  2. Table of blood group system; international society of Blood transfusion (ISBT).Oct 2008. Available from: http://ibgrl.blood.co.uk/isbt Accessed on: 15-7-2016.
  3. Garratty G, Dzik W, Issitt PD et al. Terminology for blood group antigens and genes – historical origins and guideline in the new millennium. Transfusion 2000;40:477-489.
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  6. Shaikh EL-Zyan N. Spectrum of ABO and Rh (D) blood groups amongst the Palestinian students at AL – Azhar University – Gaza. Pak J Med Sci 2006;22:333-5.
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  8. Fathelahman H. Frequency of ABO & Rh (D) Blood groups in major Sudanese Ethnic Group. Pak J Med Res 2010;49(1):21-4.
  9. Patel PA, Patel SP, Shah JV et al. Frequency and distribution of blood groups in blood donors in Western Ahmadabad – A hospital based study, National J of Med Res 2012;2(2):202-6.
  10. Worlledge S, Ogimudia SE, Thmoas CO et al. Blood group antigens & antibodies on Nigeria, Ann Trop med Parasitol 1974;68:249-64.
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  12. Sukumaran MK, Padma AS, Rajani S et al. Distribution of ABO and Rh Blood group among students of Bhavans Vivekananda College, Secunderabad, Telangana, India. IOSR J Dental Med Sci 2015;4(12):59-62.
  13. Periyavan A, Sangeetha SK, Marimuthu P et al. Distribution of ABO and Rhesus-D groups in and around Bangalore. Asian Transfus Sci 2010;4(1):41.
  14. Girish CJ, Chandrashekher TN, Ramesh Babu K et al. ABO and Rhesus blood group distribution among Malnad region blood donors. Res Rev Biomed Biotechnol 2011;2(3):25-30.
  15. Swamy CMM, Basavaraj PB, Kavitha GU et al. Prevalence of ABO and Rhesus blood group among blood donors. Indian J Public Health Res Dev 2012;3(2):106-9.
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  17. Sidhu S. Distribution of the ABO Blood groups and Rh (D) Factor among the scheduled Caste Population of Punjab. Anthropologist 2003;5:203-4.




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