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Year : 2014 | Volume : 2 | Issue : 2 | Page : 72 - 77  


Original Articles
Effect of Cotton Dust on Pulmonary Function among Cotton Textile Workers

Dhanasree Naidu V. S.1, V. S. Sai Sankalp Naidu2, P. S. Sudheer Dwarak3, P. S. Supriya Sree4, N. Anu Deepthi5

1Professor of Physiology, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad.

2, 3, 4 & 5 MBBS Scholars

Abstract:

Background: The health of the individuals will largely depend upon the work environment. In many of the cotton and textile industries, workers are largely exposed to dust. In the light of rapid economic growth and individual progress, it becomes imperative that safety and health at the workplaces will have to be given due importance.

Objective: To study the effect of cotton dust on the lung function test of cotton spinning mill workers

Methods: The study was conducted on 50 controls and experimental group in Karimnagar town. The ventilating parameters considered for analysing the pulmonary function test (PFT) were Forced Vital Capacity (FVC), Forced Expiratory Volume in 1 sec (FEV1), Percentage of Forced Volume in 1 sec (FEV1/FVC %), Maximum Mixed Expiratory Flow Rates for 25-75% (FEF 25-75%), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR) and Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV).

Results: All studied parameters if PFT show significant decrease in experimental group as compared to control group. This shows that the cotton dust has adverse effect on the health of the cotton spinning mill workers.

Conclusion: The continued exposure to cotton dust cause progressive impairment of lung functions and adversely affect the parameters such as FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV and causes restrictive and obstructive pattern of lung function impairment, which is also associated to the duration of exposure.

Key words: occupational respiratory disease, byssinosis, pulmonary function test, impaired ventilator capacity

Corresponding Author: Dr. V.S. Dhanashree Naidu, Professor of Physiology, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences (MRIMS), Hyderabad. AP.   E-mail- drvsdnaidu@yahoo.co.in

Introduction

The health of the individuals will largely depend upon the work environment. In many of the cotton and textile industries, workers are largely exposed to dust. Health is one of the most valuable assets of individual, community and the country as a whole. In the light of rapid economic growth and individual progress, it becomes imperative that safety and health at the workplaces will have to be given due importance. However, with stress being laid on quick profits, safety aspects are generally ignored.

There is scarcity of human and financial resources and due to this reason, the occupational health and occupational hygiene practices are often hindered in developed countries and more so in the developing countries. As a result, the world health report 2002 [1] found that during the year 2000, work-related risk factors were responsible for the loss of about 30 million Disability Adjusted Life Years (DALYs’) globally. In the region of South East Asia a loss of over 8 million DALY’S (27% of the total) and accounted for the highest regional burden of disease attributable to occupational risk factors.

In the cotton industries, workers are exposed to dust extensively. The cotton dust produced during processing and handling of cotton is a complex mixture of components like ground up plant matter, cotton fiber, bacteria, fungi, soil and pesticides. Exposure to cotton dust [2] leads to occupational respiratory disease called byssinosis. Clinical picture may present in two major forms; firstly ‘chronic bronchitis’ with permanent lung function changes and chronic debilitating air flow obstruction, secondly an acute reaction often called ‘Monday fever’ or ‘cotton asthma’ typically occurring in cotton mill workers on returning to their dusty work environment on Monday after being off work for the weekend, characterized by dyspnoea, chest tightness and cough associated with decreased FEV1. No attention was paid on possible chronic effects of continuous cotton dust exposure.

The respiratory health effects documented in workers exposed to these dusts includes effects on breathing and respiratory symptoms, aggravation of existing cardio-respiratory problems, alteration of body defense mechanisms and damage to lung epithelial tissues and premature deaths.

Investigations of respiratory health effects from these dust particles are necessary in order to predict the risk factors which may cause the above mentioned health hazards and also help in planning for providing better work place conditions to these workers.

In view of the fact that cotton dust puts workers health into jeopardy, this study aims to investigate the effects of cotton dust on the lung function of the workers in the cotton spinning mills and additionally by aiming to reduce the possible health risks in cotton spinners by providing information about the health hazards of cotton dust. [3]

Material and Methods

The study was undertaken at different shops of the cotton spinning mills in Karimnagar town during August 2008 – August 2009 and in the process, different cotton spinning shops have been visited to understand the nature and working patterns, to identify the dust produced and the physical conditions to which workers were exposed to.

The pattern of study design is a cross section of 2 groups with a total of 100 subjects and between 25 to 65 years of age. The Pulmonary Function Tests (PFT) was conducted on all of them.

  1. GROUP I (CONTROL GROUP) – Consists of 50 healthy Male subjects and the parameters are age, height, weight and socio economic status matched with the study of EXPERIMENTAL GROUP II. This group is not exposed to dust.

 

  1. GROUP II (EXPERIMENTAL GROUP) – Consists of 50 Male subjects working on the floor of Cotton Spinning Mills and exposed to dust at least 6 hours a day for 6 days a week and for more than five years. The parameters are age, height, weight and socio economic status matched with the study of CONTROL GROUP I.

The criteria for the selection:

  1. Healthy subjects
  2. Willing to participate
  3. Age between 25 to 65 years

The standard respiratory questionnaire was adopted in order to find out the status of the respiratory system and the detailed history was taken and thorough clinical examination was done.

The criteria for the exclusion:

  1. The cases with drug addition, malignancy, smoking, alcohol and IHD.
  2. The subjects who had past history of thoracic, abdominal surgery and with other abnormalities.
  3. The subjects with neuro-muscular diseases, with gross clinical abnormalities in thoracic cage and vertebral column.
  4. The cases diagnosed with TB, bronchial asthma and chronic bronchitis.

The Anthropometric Measurements and Pulmonary Function Tests were done on both the subjects pertain to Control and Experimental groups.

All the participants were informed about the study in detail to avoid anxiety in the subjects and to develop good rapport. Institutional Ethics Committee permission, permission from cotton spinning mill owner and the informed consent of the study subjects was obtained.

Height and weight were measured and recorded as the world health organization guidelines.

Equipment Used For Pulmonary Function Tests Are:

  • Hick’s Thermometer is used for recording atmospheric temperature.
  • Medspiror – Recorders and medicate system is a computerised electronic type of PFT machine. It is a dry type of spirometer with internal correction of volumes to BTPS.

The following measures were taken before performing PFT on both Control and Experimental Groups:

  1. Ensured sufficient water and light meal was taken by both the subjects, the night prior to the day of the pulmonary test.
  2. Ensured that food or drinks were not served to the subjects from two hours prior to test.
  3. Ensured that drugs / bronco dilator are not used on the day of the test. Likewise it was ensured that smoking was not done by any of the subjects on the day of the test.
  4. There are no acute respiratory symptoms perceived or reported.

Pulmonary Function Test (PFT) was conducted with subjects. Spiro meter gives 2 values- the actual value and the expected value. Actual values were based on maximal inspiration and expiration of the subjects. Expected values were based on height, weight and age of the subjects. The Electronic Medspiror was connected to the mains AC and the data of the subjects as regards to name, age, height, weight, sex, date of performing test, atmospheric temperature were fed to the electronic Medspiror. Subsequently the subjects were asked to perform the test and the subjects were asked to do forceful expiration as rapidly and as forcefully as possible after taking deep inspiration. Overall three consecutive readings were taken. The best reading among the three was selected and noted. One single expiratory effort gives many parameters , out of them forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in 1 sec (FEV1), percentage of forced volume in 1 sec (FEV1/FVC %), maximum mixed expiratory flow rates for 25-75% FVC (FEF 25-75%), Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR), were selected for study .

After resting for 10 minutes the test to obtain Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV) was carried out and the subjects were asked to inhale and exhale as deep and as fast as possible for 12 sec. The inbuilt mechanism of calculation in the medspiror gives MVV in liters/min. The procedure for MVV was repeated for three consecutive times with a resting period of ten minutes between each test, and the best reading was noted and recorded.

Statistical analysis of the observations was carried out using graph pad prism version 5.0. The data was expressed in terms of mean and standard deviation and inferential statistics was determined using student’s‘t’ test and correlation between different parameters was determined by Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Statistical significance was tested at 5 % and expressed in terms of ‘p’ value with p< 0.05 which is considered to be statistically significantly value.

Results

The study was conducted in the laboratory and on the floor shop of the cotton mills. The study was carried out on the subjects from both control and experimental groups in a hygienic condition. Control Group (GP-1) - (n=50) - normal healthy subjects in age group of 25-65 years. Experimental Group (GP-2) - (n=50) - cotton spinning mill workers in the age group of 25-65 years having more than five years of work exposure.

Both the groups are further divided into four subgroups depending on the age as:

GROUP-A – age group 25 – 35 years.

GROUP-B – age group 36 – 45 years.

GROUP-C – age group 46 – 55 years.

GROUP-D – age group 56 – 65 years.

Table 1 shows the comparison of mean age, height, weight, and BMI of the subjects of the two groups. This shows that there is no significant difference between the two groups as they were matched for these parameters.

Table 2 shows mean values of PFT parameters like FVC, FEV1, and FEV1/FVC%, FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV in both the groups. These parameters show statistically significant decrease in experimental group. The mean duration of exposure to cotton dust was 14.4 and 14.3 years.

Table 3 shows age wise distribution (age 25 – 35 years) of PFT parameters of control (n=8) and experimental group of cotton spinners is (n=12). In the experimental group of cotton spinners all lung function values FVC , FEV1 , FEF 25-75% and MVV are decreased significantly as compared to controls excepting FEV1/FVC%(p=0.06).

Table 4 shows age wise distribution (age 36 – 45 years) of PFT parameters of control (n=16) and Experimental Group (n=15). All PFT parameters like FVC, FEV1, and FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV show significant reduction in Experimental Group as compared to controls, except FEV1/FVC%.

Table 5 shows age wise distribution (age 46 – 55 years) of PFT parameters of Control Group (n=17) and Experimental Group (n=15). In Experimental Group FEV1, FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV   had significant reduction and FVC and FEV1/FVC% values are not significant.

Table 6 shows age wise distribution (age 56 – 65 years) of PFT parameters of control group (n=09) and experimental group (n = 08). In the experimental group FEC, FEV1, FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV are significant and PEFR alone is not significant.

Discussion

Pulmonary function test was studied in 50 controls and 50 experimental cotton spinning workers. The anthropometric parameters like age, height, weight and BMI of control and experimental groups showed no significant difference, thus making two groups comparable. The mean duration of exposure to cotton dust was 14.3 years.

The overall mean values of lung function parameters like FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC%, FEF25-75%, PEFR and MVV were significantly decreased in cotton spinning workers as compared to their matched controls.

Forced Vital Capacity (FVC)

In cotton spinners group mean FVC (2.59+0.37 liters), shows significant reduction (p=0.0005) as compared to the controls (2.89+0.45 liters). Age wise groups A, B, C and D (3.07+0.16, 2.72+0.09, 2.51+0.23 and 2.07+0.12 liters respectively) show significant decrease except in group C (p=0.38) and thus shows significant irregular behavior. FVC does not look to be sensitive parameter, but yet it gives fundamental data in ventilation studies. Bates DV [4] has also noted that FVC is not a very sensitive parameter.

The observed decline in FVC of cotton spinners in our study is in agreement with Jones, [5] Ahluwalia, [6] Morgan, [7] Su YM [8] and Sadat Ali Khan. [9]

FVC may have been decreased because of diffuse lung decease. One study on directly examining the biopsy samples of lung found that cotton fiber inhalation can cause diffuse lung fibrosis. [10]

Forced Expiratory Volume in 1st Second (FEV1)

In cotton spinners FEV1was (2.15+0.35 liters) and this was decreased significantly as compared to control group (2.51+0.34 liters), whereas all age wise sub-groups A, B, C and D (2.56+0.07, 2.37+0.17, 1.85+0.12 and 1.78+0.14 liters respectively) show significant decrease as compared to their matched controls. As revealed earlier FEV1 is most commonly studied ventilatory parameter. As FEV1 showed consistent significant decline in all groups i.e. A, B, C and D, it can be very well stated that FEV1 is more useful in evaluation of cases than that of FVC.

FEV1 is the amount of air expired in first second in forced expiratory maneuver. The forced expiratory maneuver is influenced by several factors as noted earlier. Keeping this in mind and having taken all the precautions it can be stated that the observed decrease in FEV1 is indicative of pulmonary pathology. This may be because of broncho constrictor effect due to inflammatory and allergic response to inhaled cotton dust particles. [11]

Forced Expiratory Volume Ratio (Fev1/ Fvc %)

In cotton spinners FEV1/FVC was (83.80+6.26) and this was decreased significantly as compared to control group (86.98+5.57). All age wise subgroups A, B, C and D (87.00+2.13, 84.50+2.53, 80.31+3.36 and 70.00+3.38 respectively) show significant decrease as compared to their matched controls, except in group D.

In all obstructive diseases, FEV1 is reduced disproportionately to the FVC and thus reducing the FEV1/FVC ratio below the lower limits of the normal and indicates airflow limitation. In restrictive disorders, the FEV1/FVC and total lung capacity are all reduced and the FEV1/FVC% ratio is normal or even elevated. Thus younger age groups showed restrictive pathology while older group D shows airway obstruction. It is possible that cotton workers may have developed pathological changes that cause airway obstruction such as chronic bronchitis in addition to the findings of other relative studies which report interstitial fibrosis to be a main condition following a restrictive pattern of lung function due to exposure to dust. [10, 12, 13]

Decrease in FEV1% in cotton spinners were also reported by Damodharan, [14] Jones, [5] Morgan, [7] with whom our findings are in agreement. Schilling R [15] also pointed out that the ratio of FEV1/ FVC% is a useful measure of deterioration of pulmonary function over a period of time.

Forced Expiratory Volume Ratio During 25 To 75% of Fvc (FEF25-75%)

FEF 25-75% is an effect independent and depends more on mechanical properties of the lung and this is more appropriate for predicting changes in airway resistance. Decrease in FEF 25-75% indicates small airway obstruction.

In our present study mean FEF25-75% (2.39+0.33 liters/Sec) show significant decrease in cotton spinners group as compared to control group (3.08+0.54 liters/Sec). Age wise subgroups show significant decrease in all subgroups A (2.68+0.18 liters/Sec), B (2.52+0.14 liters/Sec), C (2.32+0.23 liters/Sec) and D (1.85+0.21 liters/Sec) suggesting obstructive pathology in smaller airways.

The significant decrease in FEF25-75% in cotton spinners group is similar to the findings of Zuskin, [16] Jones, [5] Ahluwalia. [6]

Peak Expiratory Flow Rate (PEFR)

In the present study mean PEFR (5.71+0.31 liters/sec) shows significant decrease in the experimental group of cotton spinners as compared to controls (6.33+0.86 liters/Sec) (p<0.0001). Decrease in PEFR in the experimental group of cotton spinners A (6.00+0.25 liters/Sec), B (5.83+0.19 liters/Sec), C (5.57+0.23 liters/Sec) are statistically significant, whereas in group D it is showing as non-significant. The PEFR shows decreasing tendency in the present study and is recommended by many authorities for field surveys as well as screening in industrial workers. [17] The work on Pneumoconiosis has established correlation between FEV1 and PEFR and thus PEFR becomes a good tool for assessing decrease in respiratory functions. The evidence from pathological studies of cotton workers has shown inflammation and hyperplasia of larger airways. [19, 20]  

Maximum Voluntary Ventilation (MVV)

The maximum breathing capacity was introduced by Herman Sen (1933) as quoted by Fenn. [21] Maximum breathing capacity shows the coordination ability of the neuromuscular apparatus and patency of broncho-pulmonary tree and thus tells about the maximum rate and depth with which ventilation can be done and so it depends on the air velocity in the broncho-pulmonary tree at the time of inspiratory and expiratory efforts. Here there is both forceful inspiration and expiration. Thus any change in the patency of broncho-pulmonary tree will alter MVV, provided the neuromuscular apparatus is intact. MVV is decreased in patients of airways obstruction or emphysema. MVV indicate the function of the entire ventilator apparatus and depends upon compliance of the thoracic wall and lungs, airway resistance and muscular force and hence the values of MVV are effort dependent. [22]

In the present study mean MVV (96.00+10.23 liters/min) was decreased significantly in cotton spinners groups as compared to control group (107.90+13.38 liters/min). The significant reduction was seen in all groups: A (108.40+4.88 liters/min), B (100.40+4.97 liters/min), C (89.63+3.72 liters/min) and D (82.38+3.33 liters/min). Raghavan [23] found that MCB decreases in byssinosis significantly.

In 1974, Bouhuys proposed a working hypothesis that repeated micro insults to the lungs on each exposure to the toxic component of cotton dust would have cumulative damaging effect by a mechanism of damage that was not yet known. The ‘Dutch hypothesis’ of chronic obstructive lung disease proposes that airway hyper reactivity, resulting from an inflammatory response to an inhaled substance, increases the risk of irreversible obstruction and chronic disease. [24]

Chronic exposure to cotton dust deteriorates the respiratory function has been documented. Chronic exposure to cotton may lead to byssinosis, depending on the atopic status of the subject as well as other genetic and environmental factors. The disease appears generally after 10 years but it is noted that the deterioration of pulmonary functions occurs in some subjects without the clinical signs and the symptoms of byssinosis. More the duration of exposure more is the chance of clinical byssinosis.

Taking into consideration the mechanics of expiration and while observing the data obtained from the present study compared with the other authors, the FVC, FEV1,PEFR,FEF25-75%, FEV1/FVC% and MVV show deterioration in lung function, indicating combined obstructive and restrictive pathology. The present decrease in flow rates may be attributed to airway narrowing, increase in airway resistance and decrease in pulmonary compliance. Leaullen and Fowler notes that decrease inFEF25-75% is indicative of small airway narrowing and increase in the pulmonary flow resistance with decrease in thee pulmonary compliance reflecting as deterioration in flow rates.

Conclusion:

The study concludes that the continued exposure to cotton dust cause progressive impairment of lung functions and adversely affect lung function parameters, such as FVC, FEV1, FEF 25-75%, PEFR and MVV and causes restrictive and obstructive pattern of lung function impairment, which is associated with duration of exposure.

It is very difficult to diagnose the causes of impaired ventilator capacity, which can be attributed to interrelated genetic and environmental factors.

In order to avoid health hazards, workers will have to be subjected to regular medical check-ups, wear masks in the factory premises, practice yoga, do breathing exercises on a regular basis and will have to be served with a nutritious and balanced food. Furthermore, they should be educated on the ill effects caused by smoking and consuming liquor and these habits will have to be curtailed.  

References:

  1. World Health Organization. Reducing risks, promoting healthy life. The World health report 2002. Available from: who.int/whr/2002/en/whr02_en.pdf. Accessed on 12-2-2010.
  2. Bachanek T Chalas R, Pawlowicz A, Tarezydto B. Exposure to flour dust and the level of abrasion of hard tooth tissues among the workers of flour mills. Ann Agric Environ Med 1999;6(2):147-9
  3. A guide for persons employed in cotton dust environments. N.C. Department of labor Occupational Safety and Health Program. Available from: nclabor.com/osha/etta/indguide/ig5.pdf.
  4. Bates DV, Macklem PT, Christie RV. Respiratory functions in diseases. 2nd Philadelphia, London and Torronto: W.B. Saunders company; 1971. pp-vii, 12,23,37,97,386.
  5. Jones RN, Diem JE, Glindmeyer H, Dharmarajan V, Hammad YY, Carr J et al. Mill effect and dose- response relationships in byssinosis. Br J Ind Med. 1979 Nov;36(4): 305-13
  6. Alhuwalia SK. Byssinosis among cotton mill workers in Delhi. Indian J Prev Soc Med. 1980;2:155.
  7. Morgan PG, Ong SG. First report of byssinosis in Hong Kong. Br J Ind Med. 1981 Aug;38(3):290-2.
  8. Su YM, Su JR, Sheu JY, Loh CH, Liou SH. Additive Effect of Smoking and Cotton Dust Exposure on Respiratory Symptoms land Pulmonary Function of Cotton Textile Workers. Ind Health. 2003 Apr;41(2):109-15.
  9. Khan SA, Saadia A. Pulmonary Function Studies in Pakistani Cotton ginners. Pak J Physiol 2006; 2(1).
  10. Kobayashi H, Kanoh S, Motoyoshi K, Aida S. Diffuse cotton diseases caused by cotton dust inhalation but distinct from byssinosis. Thorax 2004;59(12):1095-7.
  11. Yerpude PN, Jogdand KS. Morbidity profile of cotton mill workers. Indian J Occup Environ Med. 2010 Sep;14(3): 94-6.
  12. Bouhuys A, Schoenberg JB, Beck GJ, Schilling RS. Epidemiology of chronic lung diseases in cotton Mills community. Lung 1977;154(3):167-86.
  13. Christiani DC, Wang XR, Pan LD, Zhang HX, Sun BX, Dai H et al. Longitudinal changes in pulmonary function and respiratory symptoms in cotton textile workers. A 15 years follow-up study. Am J Respir Crit Med 2001 Mar;163(4):847-53.
  14. Damodharan VN et al. Report of injury in cotton textile workers. Official publication of Indian Association for Chest Diseases and V.P. Chest Institute, University of Delhi. 1962;436(4):36.
  15. Schilling R. Worldwide Problems of byssinosis. Chest 1981;79 Suppl 4:3S-5S.
  16. Zuskin E, Mustajbegovic J, Schachter EN, Kern J. Respiratory symptoms and ventilatory function in confectionery workers. Occup Environ Med 1994;51(7):435-9.
  17. Fallat R, Snow M. Cardiopulmonary bedside monitoring. In: Eubanks DH, Bone RC, editors. Principals and Applications of Cardiorespiratory Care Equipment. Philadelphia: Mosby; 1994. P 283-7
  18. Bates, DV, Macklem PT, Christie RV. Respiratory functions in diseases. 2nd Philadelphia, London and Torronto: W.B. Saunders company; 1971. pp-vii, 12,23,37,97,386.
  19. Rooke GB. Pathology of byssinosis. Chest 1981;79 Suppl 4:67S-71S.
  20. Fallat R, Snow M. Cardiopulmonary bedside monitoring. In: Eubanks DH, Bone RC, editors. Principals and Applications of Cardiorespiratory Care Equipment. Philadelphia: Mosby; 1994. P 283-7
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  22. Fallat R, Snow M. Cardiopulmonary bedside monitoring. In: Eubanks DH, Bone RC, editors. Principals and Applications of Cardiorespiratory Care Equipment. Philadelphia: Mosby; 1994. P 283-7
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Table 1: Showing group wise comparison of age of subjects:

 

 

Group 1

Control Group

Group 2 Experimental Group

Group 1

vs

Group 2

Age

40.94±9.72

39.48±9.58

P= 0.67, p >0.05NS

Height

1.63 ± 4.82

1.62 ± 5.65

P=44 p>0.05 NS

Weight

58.75 ± 7.30

57.12 ± 6.71

P=0.24 p>0.05 NS

BMI

21.97 ± 2.69

21.56 ± 2.38

P=0.42 p>0.05 NS

 

Table 2: Showing group wise comparison of the mean pulmonary function test parameters of the subjects:

Pulmonary Function Test Parameters

Group 1

Control Group

Group 2

Experimental Group

Group 1

vs

Group 2

FVC (litres)

2.89 ± 0.45

2.59 ± 0.37

P=0.0005 p<0.05 S

FEV1 (litres)

2.51 ± 0.34

2.15 ± 0.35

p<0.0001 S

FEV1/FVC%,

86.98 ± 5.57

83.08 ± 6.26

P=0.001 p<0.05 S

FEF 25-75% (litres/sec)

3.08 ± 0.54

2.39 ± 0.33

p<0.0001 S

PEFR (litres/sec)

6.33 ± 0.86

5.71 ± 0.31

p<0.0001 S

MVV(litres/min)

107.90± 13.38

96.00± 10.23

p<0.0001 S

 

Table 3: Showing group wise comparison of the PFT parameters of the subjects

(Group A- age group 25- 35 years)

 

Pulmonary function test parameters

Group 1

Control Group

(n=8)

Group 2

Experimental Group (n=12)

Group 1

vs

Group 2

FVC (litres)

3.44 ± 0.20

3.07 ± 0.16

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

FEV1 (litres)

2.95 ± 0.26

2.56 ± 0.07

P=0.0025 p<0.05 S

FEV1/FVC%,

85.80 ± 6.42

87 ± 2.13

P=0.06 p>0.05NS

FEF 25-75% (litres/sec)

3.53 ± 0.74

2.68 ± 0.18

P=0.001 p<0.05 S

PEFR (litres/sec)

7.05 ± 0.50

6.00± 0.25

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

MVV(litres/min)

125.9 ± 11.90

108.4 ± 4.88

P=0.002 p<0.05 S

 

Table 4: Showing group wise comparison of the PFT parameters of the subjects:

Group B- age group 36- 45 years.

Pulmonary function test parameters

Group 1

Control Group

(n=16)

Group 2

Experimental Group

(n=15)

Group 1

vs

Group 2

FVC (litres)

3.11 ± 0.30

2.72 ± 0.09

P=0.0005 p<0.05 S

FEV1 (litres)

2.61 ± 0.21

2.37 ± 0.17

P=0.012 p<0.05 S

FEV1/FVC%,

83.81 ± 3.92

84.5 ± 2.53

P=0.02 p>0.05 NS

FEF 25-75% (litres/sec)

3.15 ± 0.30

2.52 ± 0.14

p<0.0001 S

PEFR (litres/sec)

6.50 ± 1.11

5.83 ± 0.19

P= 0.002 p<0.05 S

MVV(litres/min)

108.9 ± 9.26

100.4 ± 4.97

P=0.002 p<0.05 S

 

Table 5: Showing group wise comparison of the PFT parameters of the subjects:

Group C- age group 46- 55 years:

Pulmonary function test parameters

Group 1

Control Group

(n=17)

Group 2

Experimental Group (n=15)

Group 1

vs

Group 2

FVC (litres)

2.59 ± 0.24

2.51 ± 0.23

P=0.38 p>0.05NS

FEV1 (litres)

2.18 ± 0.57

1.85 ± 0.12

P=0.0029 p<0.05 S

FEV1/FVC%,

89.18 ± 5.39

80.31 ± 3.36

P=0.97 p>0.05NS

FEF 25-75% (litres/sec)

3.07 ± 0.32

2.32 ± 0.23

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

PEFR (litres/sec)

6.28 ± 0.41

5.57 ± 0.23

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

MVV(litres/min)

104.1 ± 5.58

89.63 ± 3.72

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

 

Table 6: Showing group wise comparison of the PFT parameters of the subjects:

Group D- age group 56- 65 years.

Pulmonary function test parameters

Group 1

Control Group

(n=09)

Group 2

Experimental Group

(n=08)

Group 1

vs.

Group 2

FVC (litres)

2.47 ± 0.33

2.07 ± 0.12

P=0.005 p<0.05 S

FEV1 (litres)

2.22 ± 0.23

1.78 ± 0.14

P=0.0005 p<0.05 S

FEV1/FVC%,

89.78 ± 4.89

70.00± 3.38

P=0.0001 p<0.05 S

FEF 25-75% (litres/sec)

2.54 ± 0.54

1.85 ± 0.21

P=0.004 p<0.05 S

PEFR (litres/sec)

5.4 ± 0.40

5.37 ± 0.19

P=0.87 p>0.05NS

MVV(litres/min)

94.00 ± 10.01

82.38 ± 3.33

P=0.007 p<0.05 S

 

Source of Support: Nil. Conflict of Interest: None.

 

 

Cite this article as: Dhanashree Naidu VS, Naidu VSS, Sudheer Dwarak PS, Supriya Sree PS, Anu Deepti N Effect of Cotton Dust on Pulmonary Function among Cotton Textile Workers. MRIMS J Health Sciences 2014;2(2):72-7

 

 

 

 

 

 





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MRIMS Journal of Health Sciences is an open access journal which means that all content is freely available without charge to the user or his/her institution. Users are allowed to read, download, copy, distribute, print, search, or link to the full texts of the articles in this journal without asking prior permission from the publisher of the author. This is in accordance with the BOAI definition of open access.

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