• Users Online: 849
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 1  |  Page : 102-105

Torus occipitale and occipital bun: Case series of autapomorphic traits

1 Medical Student Phase 3 Part 1 MBBS, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Orthopaedics, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anatomy, Akash Institute of Medical Sciences and Research Centre, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Manaswi Shamsundara
Medical Student Phase 3 Part 1 MBBS, Dr. B. R. Ambedkar Medical College, 48, Karnataka
Login to access the Email id

Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_89_22

Rights and Permissions

Nonmetric characteristics, epigenetic traits, and cranial distinct traits are indicated by tubercles, ossicles, bony protuberances, foramina/notches, and other features on the human skull. For decades, they have piqued the interest of anatomists and anthropologists by supporting and providing evidence for human evolution. Torus occipitale is one such cranial nonmetric variation which is the projection/prominence of inion (midpoint of external occipital protuberance). According to studies, it is caused by the ossification of the ligamentum nuchae's connection to the external occipital protuberance. Yet another nonmetric trait, occipital bun is the posterior projection of the squamous part of the occipital bone below internal occipital protuberance. This case series reports how autapomorphic traits such as torus occipitale and occipital bun are helpful to determine race and the relationship between living taxa and paleontology. These tiny qualitative differences can be used as phenotypic connection markers between groups. We hereby report four types of torus occipitale and cases of occipital bun with their clinical and anthropological relevance.

Print this article     Email this article
 Next article
 Previous article
 Table of Contents

 Similar in PUBMED
   Search Pubmed for
   Search in Google Scholar for
 Related articles
 Citation Manager
 Access Statistics
 Reader Comments
 Email Alert *
 Add to My List *
 * Requires registration (Free)

 Article Access Statistics
    PDF Downloaded14    
    Comments [Add]    

Recommend this journal