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Year : 2023  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 113-120

Comparison of intrathecal bupivacaine with different doses of clonidine for spinal anesthesia in adults: A systematic review

1 Department of Anaesthesia, Institute of Nephrourolog, Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
2 Department of Anaesthesia, Institute of Nephrourology, Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India
3 Department of Anaesthesia, Fortis Hospital, Bengaluru, Karnataka, India

Correspondence Address:
Sangeetha Dattatri
#18/1, First Cross, Gavi Puram Extension, Bengaluru - 560 019, Karnataka
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None

DOI: 10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_177_22

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Background: Evaluating the optimal dose of intrathecal clonidine adjuvant has a great impact on day-to-day practice of anesthesia, as spinal anesthesia is one of the most commonly performed anesthetic procedure. Objectives: Evaluate for the minimal dose of intrathecal clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine heavy for spinal anesthesia that can produce optimal sensory and motor blockade with minimal hemodynamic effects. Methods: Randomized control trials carried out on adult patients, of both genders undergoing elective infraumbilical surgeries under spinal anesthesia with bupivacaine heavy and different doses of clonidine having ethical committee approval were included and articles published in non-English languages were excluded. Databases (PubMed and Google Scholar) and websites of the Indian Journal of Anaesthesia and anesthesia essays and researches journals were systematically searched and interpreted in accordance with the PRISMA guidelines. Quality assessment was done using the Risk of Bias assessment 2.O tool. The mean time taken for the onset of sensory and motor blockade, mean duration of sensory and motor blockade and significant adverse effects were the key outcome variables. Nonstatistical synthesis of quantitative data of the selected articles was done. Results: The efficacy in terms of sensory and motor blockade was comparatively more with 1 μg/kg of intrathecal clonidine than with lower doses, however, cardiovascular adverse effects were dose-dependent, with 15 μg intrathecal clonidine causing least cardiovascular disturbance. Conclusion: 15–30 μg intrathecal clonidine as an adjunct to bupivacaine heavy would produce optimal sensory and motor block with minimal hemodynamic disturbances.

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