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ORIGINAL ARTICLE
Year : 2023  |  Volume : 11  |  Issue : 2  |  Page : 128-132

Study of different types of refractive errors in under-five children born preterm versus full term


Department of Ophthalmology, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana, India

Correspondence Address:
Charani Muduthanapally
Department of Ophthalmology, Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Suraram, Hyderabad, Telangana
India
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Source of Support: None, Conflict of Interest: None


DOI: 10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_35_22

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Background: Preterm birth potentially plays an important role in visual development. Studies have shown that frequency of myopia, astigmatism, anisometropia, strabismus, and amblyopia in children born preterm is higher than term children. Objective: The aim is to study different types of refractive errors in children under-five years of age born preterm and term. Methods: Comparative cross-sectional study was carried out among 64 children aged 5 years or less. Age, gender, and social status were noted. Children were subjected to refraction according to their age. Detailed anterior segment and posterior segment examination as per the cooperation of the child was conducted with torch light or slit-lamp examination with Ziess, Appasamy AARU 2000. Visual acuity was examined with appropriate methods suitable for age. Results: Fifty percent were preterm and 50% were term. About 50% were male and 50% were female. The most common refractive error was hypermetropia (42%). Among those with compound types of refractive errors, the most common was compound myopic astigmatism ≥2 diopters (17%). Compound types of refractive error were significantly more (62.5%) among the preterm compared to 31.2% among term; significantly more (91.7%) among those born <32 weeks of gestation compared to 45% and 45.5% among those born between 33 and 36 weeks and born >36 weeks of gestational, respectively; significantly more (88.9%) among low birth weight babies compared to 40% among normal birth weight babies. Age and gender were not significantly associated with compound types of refractive errors (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Most common refractive error was hypermetropia. Among those with compound types of refractive errors, the most common was compound myopic astigmatism ≥2 diopters. Being preterm, born at the gestational age of <32 weeks and low birth weight were significant risk factors for compound types of refractive errors.


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