|R Jyoti, Mudita Sharma, Shatrughan Pareek
Introduction: Maternal and child health is an important public health issue, especially in developing countries like India. Maternal and child health services help to determine maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality in a country. The second stage of labor is the most stressful part of childbirth process and the proper maternal position during this period is paramount for women's safe vaginal birth. Midwives play a pivotal role in managing maternal positions during the second stage of labor. However, there is limited evidence to support an ideal maternal position during the second stage of labor.
Methodology: All studies that explored the effects of positioning during the second stage of labor were retrieved. Only four major databases, Google Scholar, ResearchGate, PubMed, and Shodhganga, were searched. The keywords used for search included the second stage of labor, maternal position, upright position, left lateral position, squatting position, and maternal outcomes. The search criteria included studies published from 2008 to 2021. Out of 154 research articles, only 14 studies were included for the review process.
Results: The positions such as maternal upright, lateral position, squatting position, and sitting position are beneficial for the maternal and neonatal outcome. The mean length of the second stage of labor was shorter in squatting primiparas and multiparas than in semirecumbent women, whereas lithotomy and supine positions during labor are associated with poor maternal and fetal outcomes.
Conclusion: The selected positions during the second stage of labor have shown positive outcomes for the pregnant and her child. The findings should be introduced in midwifery education programs and in clinical practice as a method to improve the care of women during the second stage of labor.
|Shaik Riyaz Ameer
Background: Studies on the prevalence and risk factors among school-going children are important. They provide data on the current trends of tobacco use among this vulnerable group. They also help to identify the risk factors and provide valuable data in policy planning. The prevention of tobacco use in this population is of paramount importance to prevent future consequences.
Objective: The objective of this study is to study the prevalence and risk factors tobacco use among urban high school boys.
Methods: A cross-sectional study was carried out among 532 government and private high school boys selected by the random sampling method. Data were collected by interview method using predesigned semistructured questionnaire.
Results: Majority (35.5%) were of 12 years of age. Among smoke forms of tobacco products, most commonly known was bidi and cigarette by 97.2% of boys. The prevalence of tobacco use among boys of high school children in the present study was 7.7%. 73.1% were aware about the hazards of tobacco use. The prevalence of tobacco use was significantly more in children studying in government schools compared to private schools (P < 0.05). As the education class increased from VIII to X, the prevalence of tobacco use increased significantly (P < 0.05). It was significantly more in joint family as compared to children belonging to nuclear family. Father's education and social class were not found to be significant risk factors for tobacco use.
Conclusion: The prevalence of tobacco use was high in the present study among high school children. It was associated with increasing age, children from government schools and children from joint family.