• Users Online: 2764
  • Print this page
  • Email this page
Export selected to
Endnote
Reference Manager
Procite
Medlars Format
RefWorks Format
BibTex Format
   Table of Contents - Current issue
Coverpage
July-September 2021
Volume 9 | Issue 3
Page Nos. 89-146

Online since Saturday, September 25, 2021

Accessed 2,311 times.

PDF access policy
Journal allows immediate open access to content in HTML + PDF
View as eBookView issue as eBook
Access StatisticsIssue statistics
RSS FeedRSS
Hide all abstracts  Show selected abstracts  Export selected to  Add to my list
ORIGINAL ARTICLES  

Ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter to detect raised intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients in the intensive care unit and its correlation with computed tomography scan findings p. 89
A Srilekha, Ram Murti Sharma, Shibu Sasidharan, Babitha Manalikuzhiyil
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_29_21  
Background: Our objective was to evaluate if ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter can be used for early and accurate diagnosis of raised intracranial pressure as seen in cranial CT scan in patients of traumatic brain injury. Methods: Prospective, observational study. 40 adult traumatic head injury patients with altered sensorium suspected to have elevated intracranial pressure admitted to the ICU. Single optic nerve sheath diameter was measured 3.0 mm behind the globe in each eye, and optic nerve sheath diameter from each eye were averaged to create a binocular optic nerve sheath diameter measurement. A binocular optic nerve sheath diameter or uni-ocular measurement in patients with single eye measurement greater than 5.00 mm was considered abnormal. A CT scan of the head was performed within 2 hrs of USG measurement. The radiologist was blinded to the USG measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter and patient's CT considered to be positive for raised ICP Results: Mean age of the patients was 41.15 years. Mean ONSD recorded was 5.613. Highest ONSD was 6.300 and the lowest was 4.750. CT scan findings of raised ICT were present in 36 patients and mean ONSD was >5.00 mm in all the patients. CT scan finding of raised ICT was not present in 4 patients out of which raised ONSD was present in 1 patient. Hence study showed that USG of ONSD has 100% sensitivity and 75% specificity with a positive predictive value of 97.3% and a negative predictive value of 100%. Conclusions: Bedside ultrasonographic measurement of optic nerve sheath diameter has the potential as a sensitive screening test for elevated intracranial pressure in adult head injury patients in ICU.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among college-going adolescents in Siddipet district p. 96
Shaik Riyaz Ameer
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_9_21  
Background: Obesity among children is a major public health problem in industrialized world and also in the developing countries such as India. The prevalence is increasing at an alarming rate worldwide. India is going to become fourth country in terms of the greatest number of children with obesity. Objective: To study the prevalence and risk factors of overweight and obesity among college-going adolescents. Methods: Present cross-sectional study was carried out among 600 adolescents of 15–19 years. Pretested questionnaires were used to collect personal information, socioeconomic particulars, lifestyle patterns, and dietary habits. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated by formula weight (kg)/height (m2). Based on the BMI charts developed by IAP, percentile for BMI was taken as a standard. Underweight students were excluded from the analysis. First correlation was carried out among BMI and all other variables. Significantly correlated variables were entered in the multiple linear regression model. Significant variables (P < 0.1) on Chi-square were entered in multiple logistic regression (MLR) model. Adjusted odds-ratio (OR) were compared with the crude odds ratio for each variable. P < 0.05 was considered statistically significance. Results: The prevalence of overweight and obesity in both the sexes was found to be 17.7% in the present study. On crude analysis, being female (OR = 1.957 [1.272–3.01]), father being skilled or professional (OR = 8.184 [4.539–14.76]), father being educated at intermediate or higher (OR = 6.567 [4.132–10.44]), belonging to Social Class I and II (OR = 6.29 [3.362–11.77]), being nonvegetarian (OR = 1.663 [1.035–2.671]), and eating four times/day (OR = 1.717 [1.045–2.823]) were found to be significant risk factors for being overweight and obese among adolescents. However, final model of MLR showed that being female, father being highly educated, and belonging to higher social class were significant predictors of overweight and obesity. Conclusion: The prevalence of overweight and obesity among these college-going adolescents was high. Being female, father being highly educated and belonging to higher social class were the significant predictors of overweight and obesity.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence and determinants of dysmenorrhea: A cross-sectional study p. 103
DV B. Anusha, K Shridevi, P Manoj, A Goparaju
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_13_21  
Background: Dysmenorrhea is a medical condition of pain during menstruation. A variety of factors effect dysmenorrhea which include early menarche, younger age, diet, prolonged and aberrant menstrual flow, psychological disturbances, and pelvic infections; these interfere with dysmenorrhea symptoms. Genetic factors, exertion, and activity patterns affect prevalence and severity of dysmenorrhea. Various studies in India revealed that the prevalence of dysmenorrhea varies from 33 to 79.67. Objective: To study the prevalence, characteristics, and determinants of dysmenorrhea. Materials and Methods: Community-based cross-sectional study was carried out which included 165 women from urban field practice area who have attained menarche but not completed menopause aged 15-50 years. Data were collected using semi-structured questionnaire by direct interview. The data were analyzed by percentages, proportions. Chi-square test was used. Results: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was 60%. The correlation between the age and the dysmenorrhea grades was statistically not significant while the correlation between the age at menarche and the dysmenorrhea grades was found to be statistically significant. Majority of the participants had less than two hours of pain (33.3%) and most of them experienced the pain in the abdomen region (36.4%) and majority, i.e. 46.5% had mild pain. The duration of menstruation and duration of menstrual cycles were comparable in two groups but the heavy flow was significantly more in dysmenorrhea group compared to the normal group (P < 0.05) Conclusion: The prevalence of dysmenorrhea was high and it was related with age at menarche. Heavy flow was significantly more in dysmenorrhea patients.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence and factors associated with morbidity among postmenopausal women in a rural area in Kozhikode District p. 109
PR Shamin, S Suthanthira Kannan
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_15_21  
Introduction: The focus of women's health researchers and health policy planners has also shifted toward postmenopausal women since recent trends suggest an increase in their number and life expectancy. In general, women have more complex and stressful aging process as men do, as a consequence of hormonal changes that occur during menopausal transition. Objectives: The objective of this study is to estimate the prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms among women in a rural area of Kozhikode and study factors associated with it. Material and Methodology: A cross-sectional study was conducted among postmenopausal women aged 40–55 years in Nanminda panchayat, a rural area in Kozhikode district. This 1-year study was conducted from June 2015 to June 2016, had 245 participants with informed consent. There are 17 wards (17 clusters) in Nanminda panchayat area from which 6 wards were selected. The prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms and associated factors such as sociodemographic profile, morbidity details, diet supplements, anthropometric, clinical, and reproductive components was assessed using the pretested semistructured questionnaire. Results: A total of 245 postmenopausal women were studied. The prevalence of postmenopausal symptoms was found to be 64%. The mean age of the study population was 50.87 years. Age, education, marital status, menopausal age, and duration of menopause were found to be significantly associated with the presence of postmenopausal symptoms. Intake of Calcium supplements was found to be having protective effect against menopausal symptoms. Binary logistic regression revealed that age, educational status, marital status, and dietary intake of calcium supplements are significantly associated with postmenopausal symptoms. Conclusion: Women with early age of menopause and less duration since menopause had more risk of having postmenopausal symptoms. The prevalence of symptoms was found to be less if calcium supplements were taken.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and substance use among medical undergraduates p. 116
Pooja Chauhan, Sushma Katkuri
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_19_21  
Background: Prevalence of anxiety and depression indicates the mental health status of the community. Prevalence of stress among the medical students varies from 12% to 73%. They affect their curriculum. Substance use affects their health and academics. It has been estimated by the World Health Organization that there are about 2 billion people who use alcohol, 1.3 billion people who smoke, and 185 million people who use the drugs. Objective: The objective is to study the prevalence of depression, anxiety, stress, and substance use among medical undergraduates. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted among 243 medical and students of a medical college, during the period of November to December 2015. The students were contacted keeping the privacy, and the data were collected in the prescribed study questionnaire. The name, batch, or registration number was not enquired to maintain the confidentiality. Results: The prevalence of depression was 39.1%; mild = 15.2%; extremely severe = 0.8%; moderate = 18.5%. The prevalence of anxiety was 48.5%; mild = 11.5%; extremely severe = 8.6%; moderate = 14.8%. The prevalence of stress was 34.6%; mild = 18.9%; extremely severe = 0.8%. 97 students expressed their inability to concentrate during classes. 15.2% were involved in violence while 14% had thoughts of self-harm/suicide. 54.2% preferred parents as their primary support approach for mental support. 23.5% told the reason for not approaching mentors as they were not accessible. The prevalence of smoking was 5.7%; that of alcohol was 5.7%; and that of tobacco chewing was 3.3%. 12.2% had father as their role model for substance use and 3.6% initiated it out of curiosity. Conclusion: The prevalence of depression, anxiety, and stress as well as substance use was high in these medical and students. Consequences of mental health issues are lethal. Father was the most common role model for substance use among these students.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Effect of anxiety, stress, and depression on hypertension and diabetes during COVID-19 lockdown period in Faridabad: A cross-sectional study Highly accessed article p. 122
Utkarsh Arora, Chetana Chaudhary, G Krishna Babu, J S Surya Prabha Kona, K Babji
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_18_21  
Background: The SARS-CoV-2 pandemic with a high contagion potential poses a pathological threat to the community but has a larger psychological impact, elemental in the aggravation of blood pressure and blood glucose levels. The aim of this study is to examine and interpret the effect on individuals, with or without preexisting diabetes and hypertension, of depression, anxiety, and stress and to assess the factors associated with exacerbation of blood pressure and blood glucose levels. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional observational study was carried out through a snowball sampling method in Faridabad. A predesigned and pretested questionnaire was circulated on Google Forms. A total of 1002 responses accorded with our inclusion criteria and were involved in the final analysis. Results: In the general population, 20.7%, 42.4%, and 39.4% of individuals experienced moderate-to-severe stress, anxiety, and depression, respectively. The prevalence of stress (22.6%) and anxiety (52.9%) was higher in people with preexisting hypertension and diabetes as compared to people without these preexisting comorbidities. Participants with severe depression and severe anxiety had blood sugar level aggravation 5.55 times and 10.10 times more than the ones with lower depression and lower anxiety. Individuals with severe anxiety experienced exacerbation of blood pressure levels 7.35 times more than individuals with lower anxiety. Conclusion: Individuals experienced high mental distress during the lockdown period, especially the ones with preexisting health conditions, who displayed a higher incidence of depression, anxiety, and stress. The results further point toward a bidirectional relationship between hypertension and diabetes with mental health as people with preexisting health conditions experienced greater psychological stress than others.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

A clinicopathological study of cervical lymphadenopathy – A hospital-based cross-sectional study p. 132
Pavan Kumar Kokkonda, Koilakonda Ajay Kumar, Vivian Anandith Paul, Kameshwari Prasad, Nagarjun Nelluri, Sushmita Reddy Pulim
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_14_21  
Introduction: The enlargement of lymph nodes is an index of spread of infection and malignancy. Fine-needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) has the ability to provide rapid diagnosis and has good economic saving, reduces patient anxiety, and can be used for patients who have anesthetic risks. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study is to study the various clinical presentations of cervical lymphadenopathy. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted from June 2019 to August 2020 over a period of 14 months. The study consists of 100 consecutive cases, both outpatients and inpatients at the surgical outpatient/wards at Malla Reddy Institute of Medical Sciences, Hyderabad. In all cases, FNAC was done. Excisional biopsy was done in all 100 cases. Results: The incidence of cervical lymphadenopathy was highest in the 12–40 years age group (73%). Males were more affected than females with a male-to-female ratio of 1.22:1. Tuberculosis was the most common etiology accounting for 51%. Posterior group of cervical lymph nodes were the most common to get involved in tuberculosis (31.3%). Sixteen cases out of 51 cases of tubercular lymphadenitis showed constitutional symptoms. The sensitivity of FNAC for tuberculosis – 86%, chronic nonspecific lymphadenitis – 73.3%, malignant secondaries – 87.5%, and lymphomas – 90%. Histopathological examination is the most dependable diagnostic tool. Conclusion: The most common disease affecting lymph nodes is tuberculosis. Dependence on clinical evidence alone would lead to erroneous diagnosis in most of the cases. FNAC is an important frontline investigation. Histopathological examination remains the most dependable diagnostic tool.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta

Prevalence and severity of anemia among children and adolescent individuals of the age group of 0–18 years old p. 137
Bhrugun Anisetti, Myna Komuravelli
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_25_21  
Background: Since anemia is the most prevalent disorder in India, it got the significance to be studied and understood about. It is necessary to make people aware of the causes in certain age groups and genders, the preventive measures, and the importance of nutritional supplements, proper diet required to prevent anemia. Objective: The objective of this study is to study the prevalence and severity of anemia among children and adolescent individuals of the age group of 0–18 year old. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional survey was conducted from October 2020 to March 2021 (6 months) using the data of 267 children and adolescent individuals (0–18 years old) visiting the laboratory for complete blood count (CBC) investigation in the Hematology Department of Chalmeda Anand Rao Institute of Medical Sciences, Karimnagar, Telangana, India. The type and severity of anemia were assessed based on red cell indices and hemoglobin (HGB) levels, respectively. Results: Most common red blood cell (RBC) morphology was microcytic hypochromic (109) and least being macrocytic morphology. The average age was the highest for microcytic hypochromic. Average HGB was the highest in normocytic normochromic (9.68 g%). Majority were in the age group of 10–18 years. There were 126 male participants and 141 female participants. Average Hb in males was around 8.49 g%; common RBC morphology was microcytic hypochromic. Out of the 267 participants, 37 were nonanemic, 70 mild, 50 moderate, 55 severe, and 55 life-threatening anemias. Moreover, the average ages being 9.31, 8.78, 9.51, 10.67, and 13.6 years, respectively. Conclusion: The female predominance of anemia between the ages of 10–18 could be attributed to initiation of menstrual cycles and microcytic hypochromic smears could be related to chronic iron deficient diet.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
SHORT COMMUNICATION Top

Employment of co-operative learning as a teaching-learning method in undergraduate medical education p. 142
Saurabh RamBihariLal Shrivastava, Prateek Saurabh Shrivastava
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_30_21  
In the current health sector paradigm, we aim to deliver a patient-centered care through an interprofessional approach that works on teamwork and co-ordination. Co-operative learning refers to a teaching methodology wherein the groups of students learn mutually and eventually all the participants are benefited. In this method, the students interact with each other in small groups and in the process come out with answers and arrive at the consensus. Regardless of the multiple benefits that are being attributed to co-operative learning, it is quite surprising that this method has not been widely employed as a teaching-learning strategy in the field of undergraduate medical education. This calls for the need to identify the bottlenecks and then come out with feasible solutions to overcome the same. In conclusion, co-operative learning in medical education delivery is an effective strategy to ensure acquisition of knowledge in a student-centered approach and for the promotion of interpersonal skills. It is the right time that medical institutions explore the possibility of employment of co-operative learning within their settings and employ them appropriately to benefit the students as well as prepare them for team working.
[ABSTRACT]  [HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta
COMMENTARY Top

COVID-19's impact and consequence in children and parental sensitivities: A report from the Democratic Republic of the Congo p. 144
Shibu Sasidharan, Harpreet Singh Dhillon
DOI:10.4103/mjhs.mjhs_28_21  
[HTML Full text]  [PDF]  [Mobile Full text]  [EPub]  [Sword Plugin for Repository]Beta